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BUS 309 Week 3 Quiz 2

BUS 309 Week 3 Quiz 2
BUS 309 Week 3 Quiz 2 -

Question 1

Kant believed that we should always act

  • in such a way that we can will the maxim of our action to be a local law.
  • in a way that treats success as an end in itself, never merely as means.
  • in a way that would be universally unacceptable to all rational beings.
  • in a way that we can will the maxim of our action to become a universal law.

 

Question 2

According to the utilitarian theory, an action is morally right if and only if

  • it makes the person who does it happy.
  • everyone prefers that action to any other action.
  • it maximizes total, net happiness.
  • it brings only happiness and causes no pain.

 

Question 3

Nonconsequentialists like Ross believe that

  • we have no obligation to promote general welfare.
  • utilitarianism doesn't require us to sacrifice as much as we should to help other people.
  • morality permits each of us a sphere in which to pursue our own plans and goals.
  • people's so-called "moral rights" are unimportant when determining the right course of action.

 

Question 4

Utilitarianism is appealing as a standard for moral decision making in business. Which of the following provides a reason for this?

  • Utilitarianism provides an objective way of resolving conflicts of self-interest.
  • Utilitarianism provides a rigid approach to moral decision making.
  • Utilitarianism provides a fuzzy standard for formulating and testing policies.
  • Utilitarianism gives us firm rules to follow, rules that don't permit exceptions.

 

Question 5

Which of the following considerations about utilitarianism is correct?

  • The great 19th century utilitarians, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, believed that pleasure and happiness were different things.
  • Unlike Mill, Bentham was only concerned with the amount of pleasure that an action produces, not the quality of the pleasure.
  • Act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism boil down to the same thing.
  • Utilitarians believe that we can't compare one person's happiness with that of another.

 

Question 6

For those who are trying to make moral decisions,

  • it is impossible to make progress on controversial ethical issues unless everyone shares the same moral theory.
  • endorsing a moral principle doesn't require you to apply it in all similar situations.
  • moral judgments don't have to be related to some general moral principles.
  • in a moral discussion, clarifying the facts and spelling out the principles to which people are appealing can help us to reach a solution.

 

Question 7

Which of the following is true regarding utilitarian beliefs?

  • Utilitarians wish to maximize happiness not simply immediately, but in the long run as well.
  • Utilitarians contend that we can determine with certainty what the future consequences of our present actions will be.
  • When choosing among possible actions, utilitarianism requires us to disregard our own happiness.
  • For the hedonistic utilitarian, knowledge, friendship, and aesthetic satisfaction are inherently good.

 

Question 8

Utilitarians believe that

  • knowledge, friendship, and aesthetic satisfaction are intrinsically valuable (or inherently good).
  • we can predict with certainty the future consequences of our actions.
  • an action that leads to unhappiness is morally right if any other action that you could have performed instead would have brought about even more unhappiness.
  • an action can't be right if the people who are made happy by it are outnumbered by the people who are made unhappy by it.

 

Question 9

Which of the following represents a utilitarian belief?

  • Rightness is determined by what most people want, i.e., by majority rule.
  • Rightness is determined by what will bring about the most good.
  • We should concern ourselves only with the immediate results of our actions.
  • We must always disregard our own happiness when deciding what to do.

 

Question 10

A key idea of Immanuel Kant's ethical theory is that:

  • all duties are prima facie duties.
  • the moral permissibility of our actions depends entirely upon their consequences.
  • we should treat people as ends in themselves, never merely as means.
  • only pleasure has intrinsic value.

 

Question 11

Consequentialism

  • is best represented by Ross's theory of ethics.
  • states that sometimes the consequences of our actions can be morally relevant.
  • states that the moral rightness of an action is determined solely by its results.
  • differs from nonconsequentialism because nonconsequentialism denies that consequences have any moral significance.

 

Question 12

Egoism as a psychological theory

  • states that self-interest is the only thing that ever motivates anyone.
  • is the same thing as ethical egoism.
  • states that people are sometimes selfish.
  • is based on egoism as an ethical theory.

 

Question 13

Which of the following is true regarding Immanuel Kant’s beliefs?

  • He defended a consequentialist theory of right and wrong.
  • He believed that all duties are prima facie duties.
  • He believed that moral principles rest on empirical data, on observation and experiment.
  • He believed that reason by itself can reveal the basic principles of morality.

 

Question 14

A practical basis for discussing moral issues involves taking account of

  • effects, ideals, and obligations.
  • effort, duties, and organization.
  • compassion, intellect, and patience.
  • compliance, contribution, and consequences.

 

Question 15

Which of the following statements is true regarding human rights?

  • Human rights are equal rights; if X is a human right, then everyone has this right.
  • Human rights are transferable and thus "alienable".
  • Human rights rest on particular roles and special relationships.
  • Human rights are not natural but are always grounded in a specific legal or political system.

 

Question 16

Which of the following would support the uneven distribution of wealth for the benefit of the poorest members of society?

  • A utilitarian      
  • A Rawlsian egalitarian
  • A libertarian     
  • A capitalist

 

Question 17

A person who believes that achieving desirable outcomes is more important than ensuring that each step in the process is equally fair would be considered a:        

  • Utilitarian
  • Libertarian       
  • Rawlsian egalitarian      
  • Ethical relativist

 

Question 18

The ethical approach that posits that the ultimate goal for society should be to achieve as much overall happiness as possible is known as:       

  • Libertarianism  
  • Rawlsian egalitarianism 
  • Utilitarianism    
  • Capitalism

 

Question 19

According to libertarianism: 

  • There are no natural, Lockean rights.    
  • We have a basic right to assistance from others.           
  • It would be unjust to coerce people to give food or money to the starving.
  • Happiness takes priority over other moral concerns.

 

Question 20

Which of the following statements would a libertarian support?    

  • Residents in a wealthier section of a city should pay more taxes than the residents in a poorer section of the same city.
  • Failing public schools that are funded by tax dollars should be closed or turned into privately-funded charter schools.           
  • All corporations should be obligated to give a portion of its corporate earnings to a charity of their choosing.     
  • There should be more government-subsidized housing projects in this country.

 

Question 21

Which of the following is NOT a principle of distributive justice? 

  • Morality          
  • Individual need
  • Merit
  • Social contribution

 

Question 22

Which of the following questions is NOT related to the concept of distributive justice?  

  • Who should and should not pay taxes and how much should they pay? 
  • How should people be compensated for their work?    
  • Who should determine the punishment levels for criminals?        
  • Should aid be provided to those that do not have as much as others have?

 

Question 23

Which of the following theories would best describe a person who believes that happiness is the only good in and of itself?

  • Utilitarianism    
  • Libertarianism  
  • Rawlsian egalitarianism 
  • None of the above

 

Question 24

Which of the following is NOT a feature of Rawls' concept of the Original Position?      

  • The members of a society would establish rules without knowing their station in that society.      
  • The members of a society would represent one race and one religion but hold varying degrees of wealth.           
  • The members of a society would not know if they were educated or uneducated.          
  • The members of a society would create rules based on a certain level of fear.

 

Question 25

According to Mill's utilitarianism:   

  • Rights are certain moral rules whose observance is of the utmost importance for the long-run, overall maximization of happiness.
  • There are no rights.      
  • The rights possessed by human beings remain unchanged for all times and places.          
  • Rights are those rules that a majority of the society would agree to behind the "veil of ignorance."

 

Question 26

According to Rawls, no person can be said to deserve his or her natural characteristics, and therefore:          

  • A just society should seek to minimize the benefits and burdens that are associated with these arbitrary differences.
  • The government should support the idea of a free market.         
  • A just society should place individual liberty as the highest priority.        
  • All of the above

 

Question 27

According to John Rawls, people in "the original position" choose the principles of justice on the basis of:     

  • Social utility     
  • Their religion    
  • Self-interest     
  • Their intuitive knowledge of the natural rights of all human beings

 

Question 28

A benefit of ______________ might be that those that are least well off will be given social advantages that might provide the opportunity for improvement of their situations.         

  • The principle of equal share      
  • The principle of individual need
  • The principle of social contribution       
  • The principle of personal effort

 

Question 29

The principle of distributive justice that dictates that social benefits and burdens should be distributed equally among all members of a society is known as:         

  • Equal share
  • Individual need
  • Social contribution       
  • Personal effort

 

Question 30

Which of the following theories regards any forced redistribution of wealth as an exercise of unjust coercive government power?  

  • Utilitarianism    
  • Libertarianism
  • Rawlsian egalitarianism 
  • None of the above

 

 

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