BUS 309 Week 3 Quiz 2 -
Kant believed that we should always act
- in such a way that we can will the maxim of our action to be a local law.
- in a way that treats success as an end in itself, never merely as means.
- in a way that would be universally unacceptable to all rational beings.
- in a way that we can will the maxim of our action to become a universal law.
According to the utilitarian theory, an action is morally right if and only if
- it makes the person who does it happy.
- everyone prefers that action to any other action.
- it maximizes total, net happiness.
- it brings only happiness and causes no pain.
Nonconsequentialists like Ross believe that
- we have no obligation to promote general welfare.
- utilitarianism doesn't require us to sacrifice as much as we should to help other people.
- morality permits each of us a sphere in which to pursue our own plans and goals.
- people's so-called "moral rights" are unimportant when determining the right course of action.
Utilitarianism is appealing as a standard for moral decision making in business. Which of the following provides a reason for this?
- Utilitarianism provides an objective way of resolving conflicts of self-interest.
- Utilitarianism provides a rigid approach to moral decision making.
- Utilitarianism provides a fuzzy standard for formulating and testing policies.
- Utilitarianism gives us firm rules to follow, rules that don't permit exceptions.
Which of the following considerations about utilitarianism is correct?
- The great 19th century utilitarians, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, believed that pleasure and happiness were different things.
- Unlike Mill, Bentham was only concerned with the amount of pleasure that an action produces, not the quality of the pleasure.
- Act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism boil down to the same thing.
- Utilitarians believe that we can't compare one person's happiness with that of another.
For those who are trying to make moral decisions,
- it is impossible to make progress on controversial ethical issues unless everyone shares the same moral theory.
- endorsing a moral principle doesn't require you to apply it in all similar situations.
- moral judgments don't have to be related to some general moral principles.
- in a moral discussion, clarifying the facts and spelling out the principles to which people are appealing can help us to reach a solution.
Which of the following is true regarding utilitarian beliefs?
- Utilitarians wish to maximize happiness not simply immediately, but in the long run as well.
- Utilitarians contend that we can determine with certainty what the future consequences of our present actions will be.
- When choosing among possible actions, utilitarianism requires us to disregard our own happiness.
- For the hedonistic utilitarian, knowledge, friendship, and aesthetic satisfaction are inherently good.
Utilitarians believe that
- knowledge, friendship, and aesthetic satisfaction are intrinsically valuable (or inherently good).
- we can predict with certainty the future consequences of our actions.
- an action that leads to unhappiness is morally right if any other action that you could have performed instead would have brought about even more unhappiness.
- an action can't be right if the people who are made happy by it are outnumbered by the people who are made unhappy by it.
Which of the following represents a utilitarian belief?
- Rightness is determined by what most people want, i.e., by majority rule.
- Rightness is determined by what will bring about the most good.
- We should concern ourselves only with the immediate results of our actions.
- We must always disregard our own happiness when deciding what to do.
A key idea of Immanuel Kant's ethical theory is that:
- all duties are prima facie duties.
- the moral permissibility of our actions depends entirely upon their consequences.
- we should treat people as ends in themselves, never merely as means.
- only pleasure has intrinsic value.
- is best represented by Ross's theory of ethics.
- states that sometimes the consequences of our actions can be morally relevant.
- states that the moral rightness of an action is determined solely by its results.
- differs from nonconsequentialism because nonconsequentialism denies that consequences have any moral significance.
Egoism as a psychological theory
- states that self-interest is the only thing that ever motivates anyone.
- is the same thing as ethical egoism.
- states that people are sometimes selfish.
- is based on egoism as an ethical theory.
Which of the following is true regarding Immanuel Kant’s beliefs?
- He defended a consequentialist theory of right and wrong.
- He believed that all duties are prima facie duties.
- He believed that moral principles rest on empirical data, on observation and experiment.
- He believed that reason by itself can reveal the basic principles of morality.
A practical basis for discussing moral issues involves taking account of
- effects, ideals, and obligations.
- effort, duties, and organization.
- compassion, intellect, and patience.
- compliance, contribution, and consequences.
Which of the following statements is true regarding human rights?
- Human rights are equal rights; if X is a human right, then everyone has this right.
- Human rights are transferable and thus "alienable".
- Human rights rest on particular roles and special relationships.
- Human rights are not natural but are always grounded in a specific legal or political system.
Which of the following would support the uneven distribution of wealth for the benefit of the poorest members of society?
- A Rawlsian egalitarian
- A libertarian
A person who believes that achieving desirable outcomes is more important than ensuring that each step in the process is equally fair would be considered a:
- Rawlsian egalitarian
- Ethical relativist
The ethical approach that posits that the ultimate goal for society should be to achieve as much overall happiness as possible is known as:
- Rawlsian egalitarianism
According to libertarianism:
- There are no natural, Lockean rights.
- We have a basic right to assistance from others.
- It would be unjust to coerce people to give food or money to the starving.
- Happiness takes priority over other moral concerns.
Which of the following statements would a libertarian support?
- Residents in a wealthier section of a city should pay more taxes than the residents in a poorer section of the same city.
- Failing public schools that are funded by tax dollars should be closed or turned into privately-funded charter schools.
- All corporations should be obligated to give a portion of its corporate earnings to a charity of their choosing.
- There should be more government-subsidized housing projects in this country.
Which of the following is NOT a principle of distributive justice?
- Social contribution
Which of the following questions is NOT related to the concept of distributive justice?
- Who should and should not pay taxes and how much should they pay?
- How should people be compensated for their work?
- Who should determine the punishment levels for criminals?
- Should aid be provided to those that do not have as much as others have?
Which of the following theories would best describe a person who believes that happiness is the only good in and of itself?
- Rawlsian egalitarianism
Which of the following is NOT a feature of Rawls' concept of the Original Position?
- The members of a society would establish rules without knowing their station in that society.
- The members of a society would represent one race and one religion but hold varying degrees of wealth.
- The members of a society would not know if they were educated or uneducated.
- The members of a society would create rules based on a certain level of fear.
According to Mill's utilitarianism:
- Rights are certain moral rules whose observance is of the utmost importance for the long-run, overall maximization of happiness.
- There are no rights.
- The rights possessed by human beings remain unchanged for all times and places.
- Rights are those rules that a majority of the society would agree to behind the "veil of ignorance."
According to Rawls, no person can be said to deserve his or her natural characteristics, and therefore:
- A just society should seek to minimize the benefits and burdens that are associated with these arbitrary differences.
- The government should support the idea of a free market.
- A just society should place individual liberty as the highest priority.
- All of the above
According to John Rawls, people in "the original position" choose the principles of justice on the basis of:
- Social utility
- Their religion
- Their intuitive knowledge of the natural rights of all human beings
A benefit of ______________ might be that those that are least well off will be given social advantages that might provide the opportunity for improvement of their situations.
- The principle of equal share
- The principle of individual need
- The principle of social contribution
- The principle of personal effort
The principle of distributive justice that dictates that social benefits and burdens should be distributed equally among all members of a society is known as:
- Individual need
- Social contribution
- Personal effort
Which of the following theories regards any forced redistribution of wealth as an exercise of unjust coercive government power?
- Rawlsian egalitarianism
- None of the above